Below is a list of journal articles, book chapters/reviews and other refereed contributions from the Language Processing Lab. If you would like a copy of any of the following articles, please email Dr. Pexman at

Journal Articles

Muraki, E. J., Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (in press). Mapping semantic space: Property norms and semantic richness. Cognitive Processing.

Pexman, P. M. (in press). The role of embodiment in conceptual development. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience

Sidhu, D. M., Deschamps, K., Bourdage, J., & Pexman, P. M. (in press). Does the name say it all? Investigating phoneme-personality sound symbolism in first names. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Sidhu, D. M., Vigliacco, G., & Pexman, P. M. (in press). Effects of iconicity in lexical decision. Language & Cognition.

Whalen, J. M., Doyle, A., & Pexman, P. M. (in press). Sarcasm between siblings: Children's use of relationship information in processing ironic remarks. Journal of Pragmatics.

Doyle, A. W., Friesen, K., Reimer, S., & Pexman, P. M. (2019). Grasping the alternative: Reaching and eyegaze reveal children's processing of negation. Frontiers in Language Sciences. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01227. link here

Heard, A., Madan, C., Protzner, A. B., & Pexman, P. M. (2019). Getting a grip on sensorimotor effects in lexical-semantic processing. Behavior Research Methods, 51, 1-13.

Lund, T. C., Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2019). Sensitivity to emotion information in children's lexical processing. Cognition, 190, 61-71.

Pexman, P. M., Muraki, E. J., Sidhu, D. M., Siakaluk, P. D., & Yap, M. J. (2019). Quantifying sensorimotor experience: Body-object interaction ratings for more than 9,000 English words. Behavior Research Methods51, 453-466. link here.

Pexman, P. M., Reggin, L., & Lee, K. (2019). Addressing the challenge of verbal irony: Getting serious about sarcasm training. Languages, 4, dot: 10.3390/languages4020023. link here

Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2019). The sound symbolism of names. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 28, 398-402. link here

Wellsby, M. B., & Pexman, P. M. (2019). Learning labels for objects: Does degree of sensorimotor experience matter? Languages, 4. doi: 10.3390/languages4010003. link here.

Cassetta, B., Pexman, P. M., & Goghari, V. (2018). Cognitive and affective theory of mind and relationships with executive functioning in middle childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Journal of Developmental Psychology, 64, 514-538.

Pexman, P. M. (2018). How do we understand sarcasm? Frontiers for Young Minds. link here.

Pexman, P. M., & Yap, M. J. (2018). Individual differences in semantic processing: Insights from the Calgary semantic decision project. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 44, 1091-1112.

Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2018). Five mechanisms of sound symbolic association. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25, 1619-1643. link here

Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2018). Lonely sensational icons: Semantic neighborhood density, sensory experience, and iconicity. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 33, 25-31.

Titone, D., Tiv, M., & Pexman, P. M. (2018). The status of women cognitive scientists in Canada: Insights from publicly available NSERC funding data. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72, 81-90.

Wang, H., Pexman, P. M., Turner, G., Cortese, F., & Protzner, A. B. (2018). The relation between Scrabble expertise and brain aging as measured with EEG brain signal variability. Neurobiology of Aging, 69, 246-260.

Westbury, C., Hollis, G., Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2018). Weighing up the evidence for sound symbolism: Distributional properties predict cue strength. Journal of Memory & Language, 99, 122-150.

Zdrazilova, L., Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2018). Communicating abstract meaning: Concepts revealed in words and gestures. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 373: 20170138. link here

Duris, J., Kumpan, T., Duffels, B., Matheson, H. E., Pexman, P. M., & Siakaluk, P. D. (2017). Effects of emotion information on processing pain-related words in visual word recognition. The Mental Lexicon, 12, 283-308.

Glenwright, M., Tapley, B., Rano, J. K. S., & Pexman, P. M. (2017). Developing an appreciation for sarcasm and sarcastic gossip: It depends on perspective. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60, 3295-3309.

Pexman, P. M., Heard, A., Lloyd, E., & Yap, M. J. (2017). The Calgary semantic decision project: Concrete/abstract decision data for 10,000 English words. Behavior Research Methods, 49, 407-417. link here

Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2017). A prime example of the Maluma/Takete Effect? Testing for sound-symbolic priming. Cognitive Science, 41, 1958-1987.

van Hees, S., Seyffarth, S., Pexman, P. M., Cortese, F., & Protzner, A. B. (2017). An ERP investigation of vertical reading fluency in Scrabble experts. Brain Research, 1667, 1-10.

Inkster, M., Wellsby, M. B., Lloyd, E., & Pexman, P. M. (2016). Development of embodied word meanings: Sensorimotor effects in children's lexical processing. Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00317. link here

Pexman, P. M., & Wellsby, M. B. (2016). Linking hand to mouth: The relationship between manual dexterity and language skills in typically-developing children. Italian Journal of Cognitive Sciences, 1, 75-88.

Protzner, A. B., Hargreaves, I. S., Campbell, J. A., Myers-Stewart, K., van Hees, S., Goodyear, B. G., Sargious, P., & Pexman, P. M. (2016). This is your brain on Scrabble: Neural correlates of visual word recognition in competitive Scrabble players as measured during task and resting-state. Cortex, 75, 204-219. link here

Siakaluk, P. D., Newcombe, P. I., Duffels, B., Li, E., Sidhu, D. M., Yap, M. J., & Pexman, P. M. (2016). Effects of emotional experience in lexical decision. Frontiers in Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01157. link here

Sidhu, D. M., Heard, A., & Pexman, P. M. (2016). Is more always better for verbs? Semantic richness effects and verb meaning. Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00798. link here

Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2016). Is moving more memorable than proving? Effects of embodiment and imagined enactment on verb memory. Frontiers in Psychology.  doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01010. link here

Sidhu, D. M., Pexman, P. M., & Saint-Aubin, J. (2016). From the Bob/Kirk effect to the Benoit/Éric effect: Testing the mechanism of name sound symbolism in two languages. Acta Psychologica, 169, 88-99.

van Hees, S., Pexman, P. M., Hargreaves, I., Zdrazilova, L., Hart, J. M., Myers-Stewart, K., Cortese, F., & Protzner, A. B. (2016). Testing the limits of skill transfer for Scrabble experts in behaviour and brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00564. link here

Yap, M. J., & Pexman, P. M. (2016). Semantic richness effects in syntactic classification: The role of feedback. Frontiers in Psychology.  doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01394. link here

Yap, M. J., Lim, G. Y., & Pexman, P. M. (2015). Semantic richness effects in lexical decision: The role of feedback. Memory & Cognition, 43, 1148-1167.

Phillips, C. I., & Pexman, P. M. (2015). When do children understand "opposite"? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58, 1233-1244.

Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2015). What's in a name? Sound symbolism and gender in first names. PLOS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126809. link here

Rostad, K. R., & Pexman, P. M. (2015). Preschool-aged children recognize ambivalence: Emerging identification of concurrent conflicting desires. Frontiers in Developmental Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00425. link here

Moffat, M., Siakaluk, P. D., Sidhu, D., & Pexman, P. M. (2015). Situated conceptualization and semantic processing: Effects of emotional experience and context availability in semantic categorization and naming tasks. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 408-419.

Siakaluk, P. D., Knol, N., & Pexman, P. M. (2014). Effects of emotional experience for abstract words in the Stroop task. Cognitive Science, 38, 1698-1717.

Taikh, A., Hargreaves, I. S., Yap, M., & Pexman, P. M. (2014). Semantic classification of pictures and words. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.  doi: 10.1080/17470218.2014.975728

Hargreaves, I. S., & Pexman, P. M. (2014). Get rich quick: The signal to respond procedure reveals the time course of semantic richness effects during visual word recognition. Cognition, 131, 216-242.

Rostad, K. R., & Pexman, P. M. (2014). Developing an appreciation for ambivalence: The understanding of concurrent conflicting desires in 4- to 7-year-old children. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 122-132.

Wellsby, M., & Pexman, P. M. (2014). The influence of bodily experience on children's language processing. Topics in Cognitive Science, 6, 425-441.

Wellsby, M., & Pexman, P. M. (2014). Developing embodied cognition: Insights from children's concepts and language processing. Frontiers in Cognitive Sciencelink here

Sidhu, D. M., Kwan, R., Pexman, P. M., & Siakaluk, P. D. (2014). Effects of relative embodiment in lexical and semantic processing of verbs. Acta Psychologica, 149, 32-39.

Kowatch, K., Whalen, J. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2013). Irony comprehension in action: A new test of processing for verbal irony. Discourse Processes, 50, 301-315.

Nicholson, A., Whalen, J. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2013). Children's processing of emotion in ironic language. Frontiers in Developmental Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00691 link here

Whalen, J. M., Pexman, P. M., Gill, A., & Nowson, S. (2013). Verbal irony use in personal blogs. Behavior and Information Technology, 32, 560-569.

Zdrazilova, L., & Pexman, P. M. (2013). Grasping the invisible: Semantic processing of abstract words. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 1312-1318.

Hansen, D., Siakaluk, P. D., & Pexman, P. M. (2012). The influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction effect in visual word recognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00113 link here

Hargreaves, I. S., & Pexman, P. M. (2012). Does richness lose its luster? Effects of extensive practice on semantic richness in visual word recognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6: 234. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00234 link here

Hargreaves, I. S., Leonard, G., Pexman, P. M., Pittman, D., Siakaluk, P. D., & Goodyear, B. G. (2012). The neural correlates of the body-object interaction effect in semantic processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00022 link here

Hargreaves, I. S., Pexman, P. M., Zdrazilova, L., & Sargious, P. (2012). How a hobby can shape cognition: Visual word recognition in competitive Scrabble players. Memory & Cognition, 40, 1-7.

Hargreaves, I. S., Pexman, P. M., Johnson, J. S., & Zdrazilova, L. (2012). Richer concepts are better remembered: Number of features effects in free recall. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00073 link here

Hargreaves, I. S., White, M., Pexman, P. M., Pittman, D., & Goodyear, B. G. (2012). The question shapes the answer: The neural correlates of task differences reveal dynamic semantic processing. Brain & Language, 120, 73-78.

Newcombe, P. I., Campbell, C., Siakaluk, P. D., & Pexman, P. M. (2012). Effects of emotional and sensorimotor knowledge in semantic processing of concrete and abstract nouns. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00113. link here

Phillips, C. I., Sears, C. R., & Pexman, P. M. (2012). An embodied semantic processing effect on eye gaze during sentence reading. Language & Cognition, 4, 99-114.

Tousignant, C., & Pexman, P. M. (2012). Flexible recruitment of semantic richness: Context modulates body-object interaction effects in lexical-semantic processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.0053. link here

Yap, M. J., Pexman, P. M., Wellsby, M., Hargreaves, I. S., & Huff, M. (2012). An abundance of riches: Cross-task comparisons of semantic richness effects in visual word recognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00053 link here

Bennett, S. D. R., Burnett, A. N., Siakaluk, P. D., & Pexman, P. M. (2011). Imageability and body-object interaction ratings for 599 multisyllabic nouns. Behavior Research Methods, 43, 1100-1109.

Siakaluk, P. D., Pexman, P. M., Dalrymple, H. A. R., Stearns, J., & Owen, W. J. (2011). Some insults are more difficult to ignore: The embodied insult Stroop effect. Language & Cognitive Processes, 26, 1266-1294.

Jensen, E. J., Hargreaves, I. S., Pexman, P. M., Bass, A., Goodyear, B. G., & Federico, P. (2011). Abnormalities of lexical and semantic processing in left temporal lobe epilepsy: an fMRI study. Epilepsia, 52, 2013-2021.

Pexman, P. M., Rostad, K. R., McMorris, C. A.,  Climie, E. A., Stowkowy, J., & Glenwright, M. R. (2011). Processing of ironic language in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1097-1112. 

Yap, M. J., Tan, S. E., Pexman, P. M., & Hargreaves, I. S. (2011). Is more always better? Effects of semantic richness on lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, and semantic classification. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 742-750.

Jensen, E. J., Hargreaves, I. S., Bass, A., Pexman, P. M., Goodyear, B. G., & Federico, P. (2011). Cortical reorganization and reduced efficiency of visual word recognition in right temporal lobe epilepsy: a functional MRI study. Epilepsy Research, 93, 155-163.

Wellsby, M., Siakaluk, P. D., Owen, W. J., & Pexman, P. M. (2011). Embodied semantic processing: The body-object interaction effect in a non-manual task. Language & Cognition, 3, 1-14. 

Hargreaves, I. S., Pexman, P. M.,  Pittman, D. J., & Goodyear, B. G. (2011). Tolerating ambiguity: Ambiguous words recruit the left inferior frontal gyrus in absence of a behavioral effect. Experimental Psychology, 58, 19-30.

Wellsby, M., Siakaluk, P. D., Pexman, P. M., & Owen, W. J. (2010). Some insults are easier to detect: The embodied insult detection effect. Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00198 link here

Lupker, S. J., & Pexman, P. M. (2010). Making things difficult in lexical decision: The impact of pseudohomophones and transposed-letter nonwords on frequency and semantic priming effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 36, 1267-1289.

Whalen, J. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2010). How do children respond to verbal irony in face-to-face communication? The development of mode adoption across middle childhood. Discourse Processes, 47, 363-387.

Pexman, P. M., Whalen, J. M., & Green, J. J. (2010). Understanding verbal irony: Clues from interpretation of direct and indirect ironic remarks. Discourse Processes, 47, 237-261.

Glenwright, M. R., & Pexman, P. M. (2010).  Development of children's ability to distinguish sarcasm and verbal irony. Journal of Child Language, 37, 429-451.

Pexman, P. M., Zdrazilova, L., McConnachie, D., Deater-Deckard, K., & Petrill, S. A. (2009). "That was smooth, Mom": Children's production of verbal and gestural irony. Metaphor & Symbol, 24, 237-248.

Whalen, J. M., Pexman, P. M., & Gill, A. J. (2009). "Should be fun---not!" Incidence and marking of nonliteral language in email. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 28, 263-280.

Tillotson, S. M., Siakaluk, P. D., & Pexman, P. M. (2008). Body-Object interaction ratings for 1,618 monosyllabic nouns. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 1075-1078.

Climie, E. A., & Pexman, P. M. (2008). Eye gaze provides a window on children's understanding of verbal irony. Journal of Cognition & Development, 9, 257-285.

Pexman, P. M. (2008). It's fascinating research: The cognition of verbal irony. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 287-290.

Siakaluk, P. D., Pexman, P. M., Sears, C. R., Wilson, K., Locheed, K., & Owen, W. J. (2008). The benefits of sensorimotor knowledge: Body-object interaction facilitates semantic processing. Cognitive Science, 32, 591-605.

Pexman, P. M., Hargreaves, I. S., Siakaluk, P. D., Bodner, G. E., & Pope, J. (2008). There are many ways to be rich: Effects of three measures of semantic richness on visual word recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 161-167.

Siakaluk, P. D., Pexman, P. M., Aguilera, L., Owen, W. J., & Sears, C. R. (2008). Evidence for the activation of sensorimotor information during visual word recognition: The body-object interaction effect. Cognition, 106, 433-443.

Pexman, P. M., Hargreaves, I. S., Edwards, J. D., Henry, L. C., & Goodyear, B. G. (2007). Neural correlates of concreteness in semantic categorization. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 1407-1419.

Kerswell, L., Siakaluk, P. D., Pexman, P. M., Sears, C. R., & Owen, W. J. (2007). Homophone effects in visual word recognition depend on homophone type and task demands. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 322-327.

Pexman, P. M., Lupker, S. J., & Hino, Y. (2007). Cross-modal repetition priming with homophones provides clues about representation in the word recognition system. The Mental Lexicon, 2, 183-214.

Pexman, P. M., Hargreaves, I. S., Edwards, J. D., Henry, L. C., & Goodyear, B. G. (2007). The neural consequences of semantic richness: When more comes to mind, less activation is observed. Psychological Science, 18, 401-406.

Siakaluk, P. D., Pexman, P. M., Sears, C. R., & Owen, W. J. (2007). Multiple meanings are not necessarily a disadvantage in semantic processing: Evidence from homophone effects in semantic categorization. Language & Cognitive Processes, 22, 453-467.

Pexman, P. M., & Glenwright, M. (2007). How do typically developing children grasp the meaning of verbal irony? Journal of Neurolinguistics, 20, 178-196.

Hala, S., Pexman, P. M., & Glenwright, M. (2007). Priming the meaning of homographs in typically developing children and children with autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37, 329-340.

Hino, Y., Pexman, P. M., & Lupker, S. J. (2006). Ambiguity and relatedness effects in semantic tasks: Are they due to semantic coding? Journal of Memory & Language, 55, 247-273.

Pexman, P. M., Glenwright, M., Hala, S., Ivanko, S., & Jungen, S. (2006). Children's use of trait information in understanding verbal irony. Metaphor & Symbol, 21, 39-60.

Unsworth, S. J., Sears, C. R., & Pexman, P. M. (2005). Cultural influences on categorization processes. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 662-688.

Pexman, P. M., Trew, J. L., & Holyk, G. G. (2005). How a PINT can hurt you now but help you later: The time course of priming for word body neighbors. Journal of Memory & Language, 53, 315-341.

Edwards, J. D., Pexman, P. M., Goodyear, B. G., & Chambers, C. G. (2005). An fMRI investigation of strategies for word recognition. Cognitive Brain Research, 24, 648-662.

Pexman, P. M., Glenwright, M., Krol, A., & James, T. (2005). An acquired taste: Children's perceptions of humor and teasing in verbal irony. Discourse Processes, 40, 259-288.

Pexman, P. M., Hino, Y., & Lupker, S. J. (2004). Semantic ambiguity and the process of generating meaning from print. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 30, 1252-1270.

Ivanko, S. L., Pexman, P. M., & Olineck, K. M. (2004). How sarcastic are you? Individual differences and verbal irony. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 23, 244-271.

Holyk, G. G., & Pexman, P. M. (2004). The elusive nature of early phonological priming effects: Are there individual differences? Brain & Language, 90, 353-367.

Pexman, P. M., & Zvaigzne, M. (2004). Does irony go better with friends? Metaphor & Symbol, 19, 143-163.

Edwards, J. D., Pexman, P. M., & Hudson, C. E. (2004). Exploring the dynamics of the visual word recognition system: Homophone effects in LDT and naming. Language & Cognitive Processes, 19, 503-532.

Pexman, P. M., Holyk, G. G., & Monfils, M.-H. (2003). Number of features effects and semantic processing. Memory & Cognition, 31, 842-855.

Harris, M., & Pexman, P. M. (2003). Children's perceptions of the social functions of verbal irony. Discourse Processes, 36, 147-165. Reprinted in R. W. Gibbs and H. L. Colston (Eds.) (2007). Irony in Language and Thought. (pp. 447-466). New York, NY: Erlbaum.

Ivanko, S. L., & Pexman, P. M. (2003). Context incongruity and irony processing. Discourse Processes, 35, 241-279.

Unsworth, S. J., & Pexman, P. M. (2003). The impact of reader skill on phonological processing in visual word recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 56A, 63-81.

Pexman, P. M., Lupker, S. J., & Hino, Y. (2002). The impact of feedback semantics in visual word recognition: Number of features effects in lexical decision and naming tasks. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 542-549.

Hino, Y., Lupker, S. J., & Pexman, P. M. (2002). Ambiguity and synonymy effects in lexical decision, naming and semantic categorization tasks: Interactions between orthography, phonology and semantics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 28, 686-713.

Pexman, P. M., & Olineck, K. M. (2002). Does sarcasm always sting? Investigating the impact of ironic insults and ironic compliments. Discourse Processes, 33, 199-217.

Pexman, P. M., & Olineck, K. M. (2002). Understanding irony: How do stereotypes cue speaker intent? Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 21, 245-274.

Pexman, P. M., Lupker, S. J., & Reggin, L. D. (2002). Phonological effects in visual word recognition: Investigating the impact of feedback activation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 28, 572-584.

Pexman, P. M., Lupker, S. J., & Jared, D. (2001). Homophone effects in lexical decision. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 27, 139-156.

Pexman, P. M., Ferretti, T. R., & Katz, A. N. (2000). Discourse factors that influence on-line reading of metaphor and irony. Discourse Processes, 29, 201-222. Reprinted in R. W. Gibbs and H. L. Colston (Eds.)(2007). Irony in Language and Thought. (pp. 231-252). New York, NY: Erlbaum.

Pexman, P. M., & Lupker, S. J. (1999). Ambiguity and visual word recognition: Can feedback explain both homophone and polysemy effects? Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 267-279.

Pexman, P. M., Cristi, C., & Lupker, S. J. (1999). Facilitation and interference from formally similar word primes in a naming task. Journal of Memory & Language, 40, 195-229.

Pexman, P. M., & Lupker, S. J. (1998). Word naming and memory load: Still searching for an individual differences explanation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 24, 803-821.

Katz, A. N., & Pexman, P. M. (1997). Interpreting figurative statements: Speaker occupation can change metaphor to irony. Metaphor & Symbol, 12, 19-41.

Pexman, P. M., & Lupker, S. J. (1995). Effects of memory load in a word naming task: Five failures to replicate. Memory & Cognition, 23, 581-595.