Below is a list of journal articles, book chapters/reviews and other refereed contributions from the Language Processing Lab. If you would like a copy of any of the following articles, please email Dr. Pexman at

Our research, described for kids

Dr. Pexman wrote this article for kids, and was reviewed by kids. Check it out here!

Pexman, P. M. (2018). How Do We Understand Sarcasm? Frontiers for Young Minds.

Journal Articles

For the most up-to-date publications, click here to access Dr. Pexman's Google Scholar profile.

Sidhu, D. M., Westbury, C., Hollis, G., & Pexman, P. M. (in press). Sound symbolism shapes the English language: The maluma/takete effect in English nouns. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review.

Sidhu, D. M., Williamson, J., Slavova, V., & Pexman, P. M. (in press). An investigation of iconic language development in four datasets. Journal of Child Language.

Lee, K., Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (in press). Teaching sarcasm: Evaluating metapragmatic training for typically-developing children. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology.

Muraki, E. J., Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (in press). Heterogeneous abstract concepts: Is “ponder” different than “dissolve”? Psychological Research.

Jamieson, R. & Pexman, P. M. (2020). Moving beyond 20 questions: We (still) need stronger psychological theory. Canadian Psychology, 61, 273-280.

Kim, J., Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2020). Effects of Emotional Valence and Concreteness on Children’s Recognition Memory. Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.615041

Muraki, E. J., Protzner, A., Cortese, F., & Pexman, P. M. (2020). Heterogeneity in abstract verbs: An ERP study. Brain & Language, 211, 104863.

Muraki, E. J., Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2020). Mapping semantic space: Property norms and semantic richness. Cognitive Processing.

Pexman, P. M. (in press). The role of embodiment in conceptual development. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience

Sidhu, D. M., Deschamps, K., Bourdage, J., & Pexman, P. M. (in press). Does the name say it all? Investigating phoneme-personality sound symbolism in first names. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Sidhu, D. M., Vigliacco, G., & Pexman, P. M. (in press). Effects of iconicity in lexical decision. Language & Cognition.

Whalen, J. M., Doyle, A., & Pexman, P. M. (in press). Sarcasm between siblings: Children's use of relationship information in processing ironic remarks. Journal of Pragmatics.

Doyle, A. W., Friesen, K., Reimer, S., & Pexman, P. M. (2019). Grasping the alternative: Reaching and eyegaze reveal children's processing of negation. Frontiers in Language Sciences. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01227. link here

Heard, A., Madan, C., Protzner, A. B., & Pexman, P. M. (2019). Getting a grip on sensorimotor effects in lexical-semantic processing. Behavior Research Methods, 51, 1-13.

Lund, T. C., Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2019). Sensitivity to emotion information in children's lexical processing. Cognition, 190, 61-71.

Pexman, P. M., Muraki, E. J., Sidhu, D. M., Siakaluk, P. D., & Yap, M. J. (2019). Quantifying sensorimotor experience: Body-object interaction ratings for more than 9,000 English words. Behavior Research Methods51, 453-466. link here.

Pexman, P. M., Reggin, L., & Lee, K. (2019). Addressing the challenge of verbal irony: Getting serious about sarcasm training. Languages, 4, dot: 10.3390/languages4020023. link here

Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2019). The sound symbolism of names. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 28, 398-402. link here

Wellsby, M. B., & Pexman, P. M. (2019). Learning labels for objects: Does degree of sensorimotor experience matter? Languages, 4. doi: 10.3390/languages4010003. link here.

Cassetta, B., Pexman, P. M., & Goghari, V. (2018). Cognitive and affective theory of mind and relationships with executive functioning in middle childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Journal of Developmental Psychology, 64, 514-538.

Pexman, P. M. (2018). How do we understand sarcasm? Frontiers for Young Minds. link here.

Pexman, P. M., & Yap, M. J. (2018). Individual differences in semantic processing: Insights from the Calgary semantic decision project. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 44, 1091-1112.

Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2018). Five mechanisms of sound symbolic association. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25, 1619-1643. link here

Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2018). Lonely sensational icons: Semantic neighborhood density, sensory experience, and iconicity. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 33, 25-31.

Titone, D., Tiv, M., & Pexman, P. M. (2018). The status of women cognitive scientists in Canada: Insights from publicly available NSERC funding data. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72, 81-90.

Wang, H., Pexman, P. M., Turner, G., Cortese, F., & Protzner, A. B. (2018). The relation between Scrabble expertise and brain aging as measured with EEG brain signal variability. Neurobiology of Aging, 69, 246-260.

Westbury, C., Hollis, G., Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2018). Weighing up the evidence for sound symbolism: Distributional properties predict cue strength. Journal of Memory & Language, 99, 122-150.

Zdrazilova, L., Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2018). Communicating abstract meaning: Concepts revealed in words and gestures. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 373: 20170138. link here

Duris, J., Kumpan, T., Duffels, B., Matheson, H. E., Pexman, P. M., & Siakaluk, P. D. (2017). Effects of emotion information on processing pain-related words in visual word recognition. The Mental Lexicon, 12, 283-308.

Glenwright, M., Tapley, B., Rano, J. K. S., & Pexman, P. M. (2017). Developing an appreciation for sarcasm and sarcastic gossip: It depends on perspective. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60, 3295-3309.

Pexman, P. M., Heard, A., Lloyd, E., & Yap, M. J. (2017). The Calgary semantic decision project: Concrete/abstract decision data for 10,000 English words. Behavior Research Methods, 49, 407-417. link here

Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2017). A prime example of the Maluma/Takete Effect? Testing for sound-symbolic priming. Cognitive Science, 41, 1958-1987.

van Hees, S., Seyffarth, S., Pexman, P. M., Cortese, F., & Protzner, A. B. (2017). An ERP investigation of vertical reading fluency in Scrabble experts. Brain Research, 1667, 1-10.

Inkster, M., Wellsby, M. B., Lloyd, E., & Pexman, P. M. (2016). Development of embodied word meanings: Sensorimotor effects in children's lexical processing. Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00317. link here

Pexman, P. M., & Wellsby, M. B. (2016). Linking hand to mouth: The relationship between manual dexterity and language skills in typically-developing children. Italian Journal of Cognitive Sciences, 1, 75-88.

Protzner, A. B., Hargreaves, I. S., Campbell, J. A., Myers-Stewart, K., van Hees, S., Goodyear, B. G., Sargious, P., & Pexman, P. M. (2016). This is your brain on Scrabble: Neural correlates of visual word recognition in competitive Scrabble players as measured during task and resting-state. Cortex, 75, 204-219. link here

Siakaluk, P. D., Newcombe, P. I., Duffels, B., Li, E., Sidhu, D. M., Yap, M. J., & Pexman, P. M. (2016). Effects of emotional experience in lexical decision. Frontiers in Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01157. link here

Sidhu, D. M., Heard, A., & Pexman, P. M. (2016). Is more always better for verbs? Semantic richness effects and verb meaning. Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00798. link here

Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2016). Is moving more memorable than proving? Effects of embodiment and imagined enactment on verb memory. Frontiers in Psychology.  doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01010. link here

Sidhu, D. M., Pexman, P. M., & Saint-Aubin, J. (2016). From the Bob/Kirk effect to the Benoit/Éric effect: Testing the mechanism of name sound symbolism in two languages. Acta Psychologica, 169, 88-99.

van Hees, S., Pexman, P. M., Hargreaves, I., Zdrazilova, L., Hart, J. M., Myers-Stewart, K., Cortese, F., & Protzner, A. B. (2016). Testing the limits of skill transfer for Scrabble experts in behaviour and brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00564. link here

Yap, M. J., & Pexman, P. M. (2016). Semantic richness effects in syntactic classification: The role of feedback. Frontiers in Psychology.  doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01394. link here

Yap, M. J., Lim, G. Y., & Pexman, P. M. (2015). Semantic richness effects in lexical decision: The role of feedback. Memory & Cognition, 43, 1148-1167.

Phillips, C. I., & Pexman, P. M. (2015). When do children understand "opposite"? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58, 1233-1244.

Sidhu, D. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2015). What's in a name? Sound symbolism and gender in first names. PLOS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126809. link here

Rostad, K. R., & Pexman, P. M. (2015). Preschool-aged children recognize ambivalence: Emerging identification of concurrent conflicting desires. Frontiers in Developmental Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00425. link here

Moffat, M., Siakaluk, P. D., Sidhu, D., & Pexman, P. M. (2015). Situated conceptualization and semantic processing: Effects of emotional experience and context availability in semantic categorization and naming tasks. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 408-419.

Siakaluk, P. D., Knol, N., & Pexman, P. M. (2014). Effects of emotional experience for abstract words in the Stroop task. Cognitive Science, 38, 1698-1717.

Taikh, A., Hargreaves, I. S., Yap, M., & Pexman, P. M. (2014). Semantic classification of pictures and words. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology.  doi: 10.1080/17470218.2014.975728

Hargreaves, I. S., & Pexman, P. M. (2014). Get rich quick: The signal to respond procedure reveals the time course of semantic richness effects during visual word recognition. Cognition, 131, 216-242.

Rostad, K. R., & Pexman, P. M. (2014). Developing an appreciation for ambivalence: The understanding of concurrent conflicting desires in 4- to 7-year-old children. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 122-132.

Wellsby, M., & Pexman, P. M. (2014). The influence of bodily experience on children's language processing. Topics in Cognitive Science, 6, 425-441.

Wellsby, M., & Pexman, P. M. (2014). Developing embodied cognition: Insights from children's concepts and language processing. Frontiers in Cognitive Sciencelink here

Sidhu, D. M., Kwan, R., Pexman, P. M., & Siakaluk, P. D. (2014). Effects of relative embodiment in lexical and semantic processing of verbs. Acta Psychologica, 149, 32-39. link here (Download Embodiment Ratings for Verbs here)

Kowatch, K., Whalen, J. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2013). Irony comprehension in action: A new test of processing for verbal irony. Discourse Processes, 50, 301-315.

Nicholson, A., Whalen, J. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2013). Children's processing of emotion in ironic language. Frontiers in Developmental Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00691 link here

Whalen, J. M., Pexman, P. M., Gill, A., & Nowson, S. (2013). Verbal irony use in personal blogs. Behavior and Information Technology, 32, 560-569.

Zdrazilova, L., & Pexman, P. M. (2013). Grasping the invisible: Semantic processing of abstract words. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 1312-1318.

Hansen, D., Siakaluk, P. D., & Pexman, P. M. (2012). The influence of print exposure on the body-object interaction effect in visual word recognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00113 link here

Hargreaves, I. S., & Pexman, P. M. (2012). Does richness lose its luster? Effects of extensive practice on semantic richness in visual word recognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6: 234. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00234 link here

Hargreaves, I. S., Leonard, G., Pexman, P. M., Pittman, D., Siakaluk, P. D., & Goodyear, B. G. (2012). The neural correlates of the body-object interaction effect in semantic processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00022 link here

Hargreaves, I. S., Pexman, P. M., Zdrazilova, L., & Sargious, P. (2012). How a hobby can shape cognition: Visual word recognition in competitive Scrabble players. Memory & Cognition, 40, 1-7.

Hargreaves, I. S., Pexman, P. M., Johnson, J. S., & Zdrazilova, L. (2012). Richer concepts are better remembered: Number of features effects in free recall. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00073 link here

Hargreaves, I. S., White, M., Pexman, P. M., Pittman, D., & Goodyear, B. G. (2012). The question shapes the answer: The neural correlates of task differences reveal dynamic semantic processing. Brain & Language, 120, 73-78.

Newcombe, P. I., Campbell, C., Siakaluk, P. D., & Pexman, P. M. (2012). Effects of emotional and sensorimotor knowledge in semantic processing of concrete and abstract nouns. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00113. link here

Phillips, C. I., Sears, C. R., & Pexman, P. M. (2012). An embodied semantic processing effect on eye gaze during sentence reading. Language & Cognition, 4, 99-114.

Tousignant, C., & Pexman, P. M. (2012). Flexible recruitment of semantic richness: Context modulates body-object interaction effects in lexical-semantic processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.0053. link here

Yap, M. J., Pexman, P. M., Wellsby, M., Hargreaves, I. S., & Huff, M. (2012). An abundance of riches: Cross-task comparisons of semantic richness effects in visual word recognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00053 link here

Bennett, S. D. R., Burnett, A. N., Siakaluk, P. D., & Pexman, P. M. (2011). Imageability and body-object interaction ratings for 599 multisyllabic nouns. Behavior Research Methods, 43, 1100-1109.

Siakaluk, P. D., Pexman, P. M., Dalrymple, H. A. R., Stearns, J., & Owen, W. J. (2011). Some insults are more difficult to ignore: The embodied insult Stroop effect. Language & Cognitive Processes, 26, 1266-1294.

Jensen, E. J., Hargreaves, I. S., Pexman, P. M., Bass, A., Goodyear, B. G., & Federico, P. (2011). Abnormalities of lexical and semantic processing in left temporal lobe epilepsy: an fMRI study. Epilepsia, 52, 2013-2021.

Pexman, P. M., Rostad, K. R., McMorris, C. A.,  Climie, E. A., Stowkowy, J., & Glenwright, M. R. (2011). Processing of ironic language in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1097-1112. 

Yap, M. J., Tan, S. E., Pexman, P. M., & Hargreaves, I. S. (2011). Is more always better? Effects of semantic richness on lexical decision, speeded pronunciation, and semantic classification. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 742-750.

Jensen, E. J., Hargreaves, I. S., Bass, A., Pexman, P. M., Goodyear, B. G., & Federico, P. (2011). Cortical reorganization and reduced efficiency of visual word recognition in right temporal lobe epilepsy: a functional MRI study. Epilepsy Research, 93, 155-163.

Wellsby, M., Siakaluk, P. D., Owen, W. J., & Pexman, P. M. (2011). Embodied semantic processing: The body-object interaction effect in a non-manual task. Language & Cognition, 3, 1-14. 

Hargreaves, I. S., Pexman, P. M.,  Pittman, D. J., & Goodyear, B. G. (2011). Tolerating ambiguity: Ambiguous words recruit the left inferior frontal gyrus in absence of a behavioral effect. Experimental Psychology, 58, 19-30.

Wellsby, M., Siakaluk, P. D., Pexman, P. M., & Owen, W. J. (2010). Some insults are easier to detect: The embodied insult detection effect. Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00198 link here

Lupker, S. J., & Pexman, P. M. (2010). Making things difficult in lexical decision: The impact of pseudohomophones and transposed-letter nonwords on frequency and semantic priming effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 36, 1267-1289.

Whalen, J. M., & Pexman, P. M. (2010). How do children respond to verbal irony in face-to-face communication? The development of mode adoption across middle childhood. Discourse Processes, 47, 363-387.

Pexman, P. M., Whalen, J. M., & Green, J. J. (2010). Understanding verbal irony: Clues from interpretation of direct and indirect ironic remarks. Discourse Processes, 47, 237-261.

Glenwright, M. R., & Pexman, P. M. (2010).  Development of children's ability to distinguish sarcasm and verbal irony. Journal of Child Language, 37, 429-451.

Pexman, P. M., Zdrazilova, L., McConnachie, D., Deater-Deckard, K., & Petrill, S. A. (2009). "That was smooth, Mom": Children's production of verbal and gestural irony. Metaphor & Symbol, 24, 237-248.

Whalen, J. M., Pexman, P. M., & Gill, A. J. (2009). "Should be fun---not!" Incidence and marking of nonliteral language in email. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 28, 263-280.

Tillotson, S. M., Siakaluk, P. D., & Pexman, P. M. (2008). Body-Object interaction ratings for 1,618 monosyllabic nouns. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 1075-1078.

Climie, E. A., & Pexman, P. M. (2008). Eye gaze provides a window on children's understanding of verbal irony. Journal of Cognition & Development, 9, 257-285.

Pexman, P. M. (2008). It's fascinating research: The cognition of verbal irony. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 287-290.

Siakaluk, P. D., Pexman, P. M., Sears, C. R., Wilson, K., Locheed, K., & Owen, W. J. (2008). The benefits of sensorimotor knowledge: Body-object interaction facilitates semantic processing. Cognitive Science, 32, 591-605.

Pexman, P. M., Hargreaves, I. S., Siakaluk, P. D., Bodner, G. E., & Pope, J. (2008). There are many ways to be rich: Effects of three measures of semantic richness on visual word recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15, 161-167.

Siakaluk, P. D., Pexman, P. M., Aguilera, L., Owen, W. J., & Sears, C. R. (2008). Evidence for the activation of sensorimotor information during visual word recognition: The body-object interaction effect. Cognition, 106, 433-443.

Pexman, P. M., Hargreaves, I. S., Edwards, J. D., Henry, L. C., & Goodyear, B. G. (2007). Neural correlates of concreteness in semantic categorization. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 1407-1419.

Kerswell, L., Siakaluk, P. D., Pexman, P. M., Sears, C. R., & Owen, W. J. (2007). Homophone effects in visual word recognition depend on homophone type and task demands. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 322-327.

Pexman, P. M., Lupker, S. J., & Hino, Y. (2007). Cross-modal repetition priming with homophones provides clues about representation in the word recognition system. The Mental Lexicon, 2, 183-214.

Pexman, P. M., Hargreaves, I. S., Edwards, J. D., Henry, L. C., & Goodyear, B. G. (2007). The neural consequences of semantic richness: When more comes to mind, less activation is observed. Psychological Science, 18, 401-406.

Siakaluk, P. D., Pexman, P. M., Sears, C. R., & Owen, W. J. (2007). Multiple meanings are not necessarily a disadvantage in semantic processing: Evidence from homophone effects in semantic categorization. Language & Cognitive Processes, 22, 453-467.

Pexman, P. M., & Glenwright, M. (2007). How do typically developing children grasp the meaning of verbal irony? Journal of Neurolinguistics, 20, 178-196.

Hala, S., Pexman, P. M., & Glenwright, M. (2007). Priming the meaning of homographs in typically developing children and children with autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 37, 329-340.

Hino, Y., Pexman, P. M., & Lupker, S. J. (2006). Ambiguity and relatedness effects in semantic tasks: Are they due to semantic coding? Journal of Memory & Language, 55, 247-273.

Pexman, P. M., Glenwright, M., Hala, S., Ivanko, S., & Jungen, S. (2006). Children's use of trait information in understanding verbal irony. Metaphor & Symbol, 21, 39-60.

Unsworth, S. J., Sears, C. R., & Pexman, P. M. (2005). Cultural influences on categorization processes. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 662-688.

Pexman, P. M., Trew, J. L., & Holyk, G. G. (2005). How a PINT can hurt you now but help you later: The time course of priming for word body neighbors. Journal of Memory & Language, 53, 315-341.

Edwards, J. D., Pexman, P. M., Goodyear, B. G., & Chambers, C. G. (2005). An fMRI investigation of strategies for word recognition. Cognitive Brain Research, 24, 648-662.

Pexman, P. M., Glenwright, M., Krol, A., & James, T. (2005). An acquired taste: Children's perceptions of humor and teasing in verbal irony. Discourse Processes, 40, 259-288.

Pexman, P. M., Hino, Y., & Lupker, S. J. (2004). Semantic ambiguity and the process of generating meaning from print. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 30, 1252-1270.

Ivanko, S. L., Pexman, P. M., & Olineck, K. M. (2004). How sarcastic are you? Individual differences and verbal irony. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 23, 244-271.

Holyk, G. G., & Pexman, P. M. (2004). The elusive nature of early phonological priming effects: Are there individual differences? Brain & Language, 90, 353-367.

Pexman, P. M., & Zvaigzne, M. (2004). Does irony go better with friends? Metaphor & Symbol, 19, 143-163.

Edwards, J. D., Pexman, P. M., & Hudson, C. E. (2004). Exploring the dynamics of the visual word recognition system: Homophone effects in LDT and naming. Language & Cognitive Processes, 19, 503-532.

Pexman, P. M., Holyk, G. G., & Monfils, M.-H. (2003). Number of features effects and semantic processing. Memory & Cognition, 31, 842-855.

Harris, M., & Pexman, P. M. (2003). Children's perceptions of the social functions of verbal irony. Discourse Processes, 36, 147-165. Reprinted in R. W. Gibbs and H. L. Colston (Eds.) (2007). Irony in Language and Thought. (pp. 447-466). New York, NY: Erlbaum.

Ivanko, S. L., & Pexman, P. M. (2003). Context incongruity and irony processing. Discourse Processes, 35, 241-279.

Unsworth, S. J., & Pexman, P. M. (2003). The impact of reader skill on phonological processing in visual word recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 56A, 63-81.

Pexman, P. M., Lupker, S. J., & Hino, Y. (2002). The impact of feedback semantics in visual word recognition: Number of features effects in lexical decision and naming tasks. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 542-549.

Hino, Y., Lupker, S. J., & Pexman, P. M. (2002). Ambiguity and synonymy effects in lexical decision, naming and semantic categorization tasks: Interactions between orthography, phonology and semantics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 28, 686-713.

Pexman, P. M., & Olineck, K. M. (2002). Does sarcasm always sting? Investigating the impact of ironic insults and ironic compliments. Discourse Processes, 33, 199-217.

Pexman, P. M., & Olineck, K. M. (2002). Understanding irony: How do stereotypes cue speaker intent? Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 21, 245-274.

Pexman, P. M., Lupker, S. J., & Reggin, L. D. (2002). Phonological effects in visual word recognition: Investigating the impact of feedback activation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 28, 572-584.

Pexman, P. M., Lupker, S. J., & Jared, D. (2001). Homophone effects in lexical decision. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 27, 139-156.

Pexman, P. M., Ferretti, T. R., & Katz, A. N. (2000). Discourse factors that influence on-line reading of metaphor and irony. Discourse Processes, 29, 201-222. Reprinted in R. W. Gibbs and H. L. Colston (Eds.)(2007). Irony in Language and Thought. (pp. 231-252). New York, NY: Erlbaum.

Pexman, P. M., & Lupker, S. J. (1999). Ambiguity and visual word recognition: Can feedback explain both homophone and polysemy effects? Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 267-279.

Pexman, P. M., Cristi, C., & Lupker, S. J. (1999). Facilitation and interference from formally similar word primes in a naming task. Journal of Memory & Language, 40, 195-229.

Pexman, P. M., & Lupker, S. J. (1998). Word naming and memory load: Still searching for an individual differences explanation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 24, 803-821.

Katz, A. N., & Pexman, P. M. (1997). Interpreting figurative statements: Speaker occupation can change metaphor to irony. Metaphor & Symbol, 12, 19-41.

Pexman, P. M., & Lupker, S. J. (1995). Effects of memory load in a word naming task: Five failures to replicate. Memory & Cognition, 23, 581-595.