Hockey

Disallowing body checking in non-elite 13- to 14-year-old ice hockey leagues

Emery C, Palacios-Derflingher L, Black AM, Eliason P, Krowlikowski M, Spencer N, Kozak S, Schneider KJ, Babul S, Mrazik M, Lebrun CM, Goulet C, Macpherson A, Hagel BE

Br J Sports Med September 2019


Who participated in this study?

608 players from 49 body checking teams and 396 players from 33 non-body checking teams in Calgary, Edmonton, Kelowna and Vancouver.

When did this study occur?

2014-2016

Why did we do this research?

To compare rates of injury and concussion among non-elite Bantam ice hockey leagues that disallow body checking to non-elite Bantam leagues that allow body checking

What did we find?

Disallowing body checking in non-elite Bantam ice hockey resulted in a 56% lower rate of injury. There is growing evidence that disallowing body checking is associated with fewer injuries.

Publication

The Association Between Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity and Time to Medical Clearance

Lishchynsky JT, Rutschmann TD, Toomey CM, Palacios-Derflingher L, Yeates KO, Emery CA, Schneider KJ

Front Neurol June 2019


Who participated in this study?

30 ice hockey players (12-17 yrs old) that were diagnosed with a concussion sustained during ice hockey

When did this study occur?

2015-2016

Why did we do this research?

To evaluate the association between the amount of moderate and vigorous physical activity during the first 3 days following concussion diagnosis and time to medical clearance to return to play in youth ice hockey players

What did we find?

More time in moderate and vigorous physical activity early in recovery period may result in greater time to medical clearance to return to full participation

Publication

Concussion Burden, Recovery, and Risk Factors in Elite Youth Ice Hockey Players

Schneider KJ, Nettel-Aguirre A, Palacios-Derfliingher L, Mrazik M, Brooks BL, Woollings K, Blake T, McKay C, Lebrun C, Barlow K, Taylor K, Lemke N, Meeuwisse WH, Emery CA

Clin J Sport Med October 2018


Who participated in this study?

659 elite male and 119 elite female youth ice hockey players

When did this study occur?

2011-2012 ice hockey season

Why did we do this research?

To examine rates of concussion and more severe concussion (time loss of greater than 10 days) in elite 13- to 17-year-old ice hockey players

What did we find?

Concussion incidence rate was 17.60 concussions/100 players, 1.31 concussions/1000 player-hours. Time loss greater than 10 days was reported in 74% of cases and 20% had time loss greater than 30 days.

Publication

Physical activity and concussion risk in youth ice hockey players

Blake TA, Doyle-Baker PK, Brooks BL, Palacios-Derflingher L, Emery CA

BMJ Open September 2018


Who participated in this study?

1208 Pee Wee, Bantam and Midget male ice hockey players in Alberta, Canada

When did this study occur?

2011-2015

Why did we do this research?

To examine the association between meeting physical activity volume recommendations and concussion rates

What did we find?

Concussion rate of players who did not meet the Canadian physical activity volume recommendations was more that twice the concussion rate of players who met recommendations among Pee Wee, Bantam and non-elite.

Publication

The risk of injury associated with body checking among Pee Wee ice hockey players

Black AM, Hagel BE, Palacios-Derflingher L, Schneider KJ, Emery CA

Br J Sports Med December 2017


Who participated in this study?

883 Pee Wee players from 59 teams in Calgary, Alberta in 2011-2012 and 618 Pee Wee players from 73 teams in 2013-2014

When did this study occur?

2011-2012 & 2013-2014 seasons

Why did we do this research?

To determine if the risk of injury, including concussions, changes for Pee Wee ice hockey players in the season following a national policy change disallowing body checking

What did we find?

Introduction on the 2013 national body checking policy resulted in a 50% relative reduction in injury rate and a 64% reduction in concussion rate

Publication

The Effect of the "Zero Tolerance for Head Contact" Rule Change on the Risk of Concussions

Krolikowski MP, Black AM, Palacios-Derflingher L, Blake TA, Schneider KJ, Emery CA

Am J Sports Med February 2017


Who participated in this study?

891 Pee Wee (70% elite) and 378 Bantam (30% elite) before the rule change and 588 Pee Wee and 242 Bantam in the same levels of play after the policy change

When did this study occur?

2007-2008, 2008-2009, 2011-2012

Why did we do this research?

To determine if the risk of game-related concussions and more severe concussions and the mechanisms of a concussion differed for Pee Wee class and Bantam class players after the 2011 “zero tolerance for head contact” policy change compared with players of similar divisions before the policy change

What did we find?

The policy change did not reduce the risk of game-related concussion in Pee Wee or Bantam. Increased concussion awareness and education after the policy change may have contributed to the increase risk of concussion found after the policy change

Publication

Do children and adolescent ice hockey players differ in robotic testing?

Little CE, Emery C, Scott SH, Meeuwisse W, Palacios-Deflingher L, Dukelow SP

J Neuroeng Rehabil October 2016


Who participated in this study?

385 pediatric/adolescent ice hockey players

When did this study occur?

2013-2014 ice hockey season

Why did we do this research?

To determine whether differences in baseline performance on multiple robotic tasks could be identified between pediatric/adolescent ice hockey players

What did we find?

No differences in sensorimotor and/or cognitive performance across multiple parameters using KINARM end point robotic testing

Publication

Policy change eliminating body checking in non-elite ice hockey leads to a threefold reduction

Black AM, Macpherson AK, Hagel BE, Romiti MA, Palacios-Derflingher L, Kang J, Meeuwisse WH, Emery CA

Br J Sports Med January 2016


Who participated in this study?

590 non-elite Pee Wee players from Alberta and 281 from Ontario; 294 elite Pee Wee players from Alberta and 166 from Ontario

When did this study occur?

2011-2012 ice hockey season

Why did we do this research?

to compare the risk of injury and concussion between non-elite Pee Wee ice hockey players in leagues where body checking is permitted and leagues where policy change disallowed body checking

What did we find?

The rate of injury and concussion were threefold greater in non-elite Pee Wee ice hockey players in leagues where body checking was permitted. The rate of injury and concussion did not differ between provinces in elite levels where body checking was allowed.

Publication

Baseline evaluation in youth ice hockey players

McKay CD, Schneider KJ, Brooks BL, Mrazik M, Emery CA

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther May 2014


Who participated in this study?

714 AA and AAA Bantam and Midget hockey players, aged 12-17

When did this study occur?

2011-2012 hockey season

Why did we do this research?

To examine the differences in concussion history and attention or learning disorders

What did we find?

There was substantial disagreements between instruments reporting learning disorders.

Publication

Psychometric properties and reference values for the ImPACT neurocognitive test battery

McKay CD, Brooks BL, Mrazik M, Jubinville AL, Emery CA

Arch Clin Neuropsychol March 2014


Who participated in this study?

704 elite hockey players, aged 13-17 years

When did this study occur?

2011-2012 hockey season

Why did we do this research?

To determine psychometric properties and reference values for ImPACT

What did we find?

Players aged 16-17 years had better visual processing speeds than younger individuals. Girls had a greater total symptom rating than boys.

Publication

Injury rates, types, mechanisms and risk factors for injury in female youth ice hockey

Decloe MD, Meeuwisse WH, Hagel BE, Emery CA

Br J Sports Med January 2014


Who participated in this study?

Female youth ice hockey players, aged 9-17, in Girls Hockey Calgary Association

When did this study occur?

2008-2009 season

Why did we do this research?

To examine the rates, types, mechanisms and risk factors of female youth hockey

What did we find?

Injury rates were lower than in male hockey populations

Publication

The epidemiology of professional ice hockey injuries: a prospective report of six NHL seasons

McKay CD, Taufts RJ, Shaffer B, Meeuwisse WH

Br J Sports Med January 2014


Who participated in this study?

All NHL teams

When did this study occur?

The 2006-2007 season through the 2011-2012 season

Why did we do this research?

To determine injury and illness rates in the NHL over six seasons. To identify predictors of injury-related time loss in this population

What did we find?

Being a goaltender, being injured on the road, and being injured by a body check were the greatest risk factors.

Publication

Subjective but not objective, lingering effects of multiple past concussions in adolescents

Brooks BL, McKay CD, Mrazik M, Barlow KM, Meeuwisse WH, Emery CA

J Neurotrauma September 2013


Who participated in this study?

643 Bantam and Midget hockey players, aged 13-17

When did this study occur?

2011-2012 hockey season

Why did we do this research?

To examine whether there are lingering effects from past concussions in adolescent athletes

What did we find?

Significantly more symptoms were reported in those with two or more concussions than those with one or no prior.

Publication

Preseason reports of neck pain, dizziness, and headache as risk factors for concussion

Schneider KJ, Meeuwisse WH, Kang J, Schneider GM, Emery CA

Clin J Sport Med July 2013


Who participated in this study?

3832 male ice hockey players, aged 11-14, in Alberta and Quebec

When did this study occur?

2007-2008 PeeWee season and 2008-2009 Bantam season

Why did we do this research?

To determine the risk of concussion for players who reported neck pain, dizziness, and/or headache in the preseason

What did we find?

Athletes who reported these symptoms in the preseason were at a greater risk of concussion during the season

Publication

The role of psychosocial factors for injury in elite youth ice hockey

McKay C, Campbell T, Meeuwisse W, Emery C

Clin J Sports Med May 2013


Who participated in this study?

316 Bantam and Midget male ice hockey players, aged 13-17, in Calgary, Alberta

When did this study occur?

2007-2008 hockey season

Why did we do this research?

To determine the risk of injury associated with athletic identity, attitudes towards body checking, competitive state anxiety, and re-injury fear

What did we find?

Athletic identity was implicated as an injury risk factor.

Publication

What factors increase the risk of concussion in elite youth ice hockey players?

Blake TA, Kang J, Meeuwisse WH, Lemke N, Schneider KJ, Taylor KA, Emery CA

Br J Sports Med March 2013


Who participated in this study?

764 Bantam and Midget hockey players, aged 12-17

When did this study occur?

Published March 2013

Why did we do this research?

To examine the risk of concussion among elite youth male and female ice hockey players.

What did we find?

There is a greater risk of concussion for 15-17 year old players with a previous history of concussion.

Publication

Risk of injury and concussion associated with team performance and penalty minutes

Emery CA, Kang J, Schneider KJ, Meeuwisse WH

Br J Sports Med November 2011


Who participated in this study?

2081 players from Alberta and 2018 players from Quebec

When did this study occur?

2007-2008 PeeWee season and 2008-2009 Bantam season

Why did we do this research?

To determine if there is an association between the risk of all injury or concussion and win-loss records or penalty minutes in competitive youth ice hockey players

What did we find?

There is a lower injury risk in teams winning at least 50% of their games. There is no associations between penalty minutes and injury rate.

Publication

The risk of injury associated with body checking in young ice hockey players

Emery CA, Kang J, Shrier I, Goulet C, Hagel BE, Benson BW, Nettel-Aguirre A, McAllister JR, Hamilton GM, Meeuwisse WH

JAMA June 9 2010


Who participated in this study?

PeeWee hockey players, aged 11-12 years, in Alberta and Quebec

When did this study occur?

2007-2008 hockey season

Why did we do this research?

To compare the risk of injury and concussion in a body-checking league (Alberta) to a non-body checking league (Quebec)

What did we find?

There was a significantly increased risk of injury and concussion in the body checking league (Alberta) compared with the non-body checking league (Quebec).

Publication

Examining Attitudes Toward Body Checking, Levels of Emotional Empathy, and Levels of Aggression

Emery CA, McKay CD, Campbell TS, Peters AN

Clin J Sport Med May 2009


Who participated in this study?

Male hockey players from PeeWee, Bantam and Midget teams in the Minor Hockey Association of Calgary

When did this study occur?

2007-2008 hockey season

Why did we do this research?

To examine the attitudes toward body checking, levels of emotional empathy and levels of aggression in body checking and non-body checking youth hockey leagues

What did we find?

Attitudes toward body checking, and levels of empathy and aggression did not influence injury risk.

Publication

Risk factors and mechanisms of injury in female youth ice hockey players

Decloe MD, Emery CA, Hagel B, Meeuwisse WH

Clin J Sport Med May 2009


Who participated in this study?

Young female hockey players, aged 9-17 years, in the Girls Hockey Calgary Association (GHCA)

When did this study occur?

2008-2009 hockey season

Why did we do this research?

To examine the incidence of injury, the type/severity of injury, and the mechanisms of injury

What did we find?

The overall injury rate was 1.9 injuries/1000 player hours. Previous injury, session type (games) and menstrual history (in PeeWee only) were risk factors for injury.

Publication

Injury Rates, Risk Factors, and Mechanisms of Injury in Minor Hockey

Emery CA, Meeuwisse WH

The American Journal of Sports Medicine December 2006


Who participated in this study?

Male minor hockey players, aged 9-17 years, from 71 teams in the Minor Hockey Association of Calgary

When did this study occur?

2004-2005 hockey season

Why did we do this research?

To examine injury rates, risk factors, and mechanisms of injury in minor hockey

What did we find?

The most common types were concussions and shoulder sprain/dislocations. The most common mechanism of injury was body checking. The risk of injury appeared to increase with increasing age and skill level.

Publication

Injury Rates and Profiles in Female Ice Hockey Players

Schick DM, Meeuwisse WH

The American Journal of Sports Medicine January 2003


Who participated in this study?

Female varsity players from the Canada West University Athletic Association

When did this study happen?

1998-1999 hockey season

Why are we doing this research?

To compare injury rates, risk factors, and mechanisms of injury between gender in varsity hockey

What did we find?

Females had similar injury rates to males. Concussions and ankle sprains were the most common types of injury in females. Most injuries were due to a contact related mechanism.

Publication

The impact of face shield use on concussions in hockey

Benson BW, Rose MW, Meeuwisse WH

Br J Sports Med February 2002


Who participated in this study?

Varsity male hockey players from the Canada Inter-University Athletic Union

When did this study occur?

1997-1998 hockey season

Why did we do this research?

To compare the risk of concussion with players wearing full face shields compared with half face shields (visors)

What did we find?

A full face shield compared with half face shield reduced severity of concussion (playing time loss).

Publication

Risk factors for groin injuries in hockey

Emery CA, Meeuwisse WH

Med Sci Sports Exerc September 2001


Who participated in this study?

NHL players

When did this study occur?

1998-1999 training camp and regular season

Why did we do this research?

To examine what factors might increase the risk of groin injury

What did we find?

Low levels of off-season training and previous injury can increase the risk of a groin injury. Veterans were at a greater risk of injury than rookies

Publications

Head and Neck Injuries Among Ice Hockey Players Wearing Full Face Shields vs Half Face Shields

Benson BW, Mohtadi NGH, Rose MS, Meeuwisse WH

JAMA December 1999


Who participated in this study?

Male varsity hockey players in the Canadian Inter-University Athletics Union

When did this study occur?

1997-1998 season

Why did we do this research?

To determine the risk of a head or neck injury in hockey players wearing full face shields compared with those wearing half shields

What did we find?

Wearing a full face shield reduces the risk of sustaining facial and dental injuries without an increase in the risk of neck injuries, concussions, or other injuries.

Publication

Groin and abdominal strain injuries in the National Hockey League

Emery CA, Meeuwisse WH, Powell JW

Clin J Sport Med July 1999


Who participated in this study?

NHL players

When did this study occur?

1991-1992 season through 1996-1997

Why did we do this research?

To analyze groin and abdominal strain injuries

What did we find?

The rate of strain injuries increased over the 6 seasons. Training camps had the highest risk of strain injuries. Games had a higher risk compared to practices for the strain injuries. Abdominal injuries tended to be more severe than groin injuries.

Publication